Mediterranean Citrus deliciosa Ten. Středozemní mandarina
Amarillo, Arbi, Avana, Avana Adireno, Avana Apireno, Avana di Palermo, Avana di Paterno, Ba Ahmed, Baladi, Belady, Beldi, Beledi, Beledy, Blida , Bodrum, Commune, Comun, Comun 4n, Comune, de Ba Ahmed, de Blidah, de Nice, de Provence, de Situbal, de Valence, de Willat, del Mediterraneo, di Palermo, di Paterno, Effendi, Gallego, Havana, Havana of Palermo, China, Chino, Italian, Joseph Effendi, Koino, Médélina arbi, Mexecira, Mexirica do Rio, Palermo, Paterno, Setubal, Setúbal, Setubalense, Středozemní, Thorny, Valencia, Willow leaf, Willowleaf, Willow-Leaf, Yerli, Yousif Effendi, Youssef-Effendi, Youssouf, Yusuf Efendi, Yusufi Baladi
'Avana Apireno' most probably originates in China, from where it was brought to England in 1805 and from there to Malta by Abraham Hume. This variety then came from Malta to Sicily in 1810 thanks to Professor G. Tineovi, who planted it in Botanical garden in Palermo. In 1816 Marquise Ruffo brought one plant to his garden in Capodimonte, Neapol, where it was described in 1840 by Michele Tenore, the director of local Botanical garden. This tangerine quickly spread to other citrus cultivation areas all over the Europe and later, between 1840 and 1850 finally came to USA. According to many sources this variety could have its roots in tangerine 'Canton'. Even though Clementina is the main cultivated tangerine nowadays, 'Avana Apireno' hasn't lost its place in Mediterranean gardens. If it should be compared to other tangerines, there are certain characteristics, which distinguish it from them: 1.small, spear-shaped leaves with strange but pleasant etherical oils aroma 2. Soft and tasty juice flavor 3. Almost no essential oil aroma in the rind. 4. Round, usually spherical polyembrionic seeds.
It is either a smaller, slower growing tree or tall shrub. It has almost thornless, thin branches that are indisputably overhanging. The small, white, fragrant flowers grow individually and either small or average, spherical, flattened fruit (4,5-6 cm) that weighs 70-80g grow in the shade of the crown. The fruit's orange rind is soft, thin and easy to peel and usually cracks, when the fruit hangs on the tree too long after ripening. Pinkish orange, juicy and aromatic pulp is divided into 10-12 average segments with average thick membranes and around 25 seeds. 'Avana Apireno' is fairly cold hardy and can withstand unfavorable weather, although certain minimal temperatures are required for fruit to ripen properly (ripens sometime from November to January). The greatest disadvantage of this cultivar is its unequal fruiting and almost no way to store the fruit long. 'Avana Apireno' is sometimes also used as a rootstock. It can have various local names, e.g. it is called 'Avana' or 'Avana apireno', 'Avana di Palermo', 'Avana di Paterno', 'Palermo' or 'Paterno' (after a Sicilian city) in Italy. Clone originating in Paterno has distinctive neck, darker orange rind and much bigger segments. The clone named after Palermo has lighter rind and smaller segments. It is also called 'Ba Ahmed' in Marocco, 'Baladi' and 'Yusuf Efendi' in Egypt and Middle East, 'Blida' in Algeria, 'Commune' or 'de Nice' in France, 'Valencia' and 'Comun' in Spain, 'Setúbal' and 'Galego' in Portugal, 'Bodrum' in Turkey, 'Thorny' in Australia, 'Mexirica do Rio' in Brazil, 'Chino' and 'Amarillo' in Mexico and 'Willowleaf' in USA.
Its pollen was used in breeding and many new, improved varieties came to existence ('Encore', 'Kinnow', 'Willking'). It also gave rise to many other cultivars, such as 'Avana Tardivo di Ciaculli', 'Ciaculli late' and numerous seedless, yet unimportant varieties. It is suitable for growing in pots. Clone 'Avana apireno' is almost completely seedless, cultivar 'Salteñita' ('Montenegrina') is sometimes also considered to be its clone. Original clone 'Belady', 'Baladi', 'Beledi', 'Beldi' or 'Beledy' has smaller fruit (4-5cm).